Application: Metal single crystals are required among others for basic research (surface physics, catalytic chemistry, investigation of material properties, etc.), for monochromators (for X-ray, neutrons, etc.) and electrons (W-needles, LaB6, CeB6, etc.). Properties: The quality of our crystals is characterized by an especially high mosaicity. During application of the surface, particular emphasis will be put on orientation accuracy of the crystallographic direction (orientation accuracy). The especially careful surface conditioning (polishing) allows after low heat and sputter cycles the direct investigation of the up to several 1000 nm spread nuclear terraces. Mosaicity of the elements: the mosaicity describes the deviation of the perfect structure of the crystal. It is the angle specification which describes the deviation of a reflective X-ray jet and the ideal reflex angle. A small angle stands for a perfect crystal structure. Orientation accuracy: up to <0,05° Polishing: roughness < 1nm (also at soft elements as Au or Pb) Geometric: The following crystal geometrics are available. When requesting a quote please specify geometric shape. In case the desired geometrics are not available please send us a drawing for a quote. Production of metallic single crystals is carried out in most modern equipment with highest quality requirements. For crystal growth using the Bridgman-, Czochralski- and zone melting techniques only highest purity starting materials are used. The following metallic single crystals are normally available from the shelf. Please click on view to choose your geometry:
Metal single crystal Purity Information
Aluminium - Al 6N More Info
Antimony - Sb 6N2 More Info
Bismuth - Bi 5N More Info
Cadmium - Cd 5N More Info
Chromium - Cr 5N More Info
Cobalt - Co 4N More Info
Copper - Cu 5N More Info
Dysprosium - Dy 3N5 More Info
Gadolinium - Gd 4N More Info
Germanium - Ge 6N More Info
Gold - Au 5N More Info
Hafnium - Hf 4N ex Zr More Info
Holmium - Ho 3N5 More Info
Indium - In 6N More Info
Iridium - Ir 4N More Info
Iron - Fe 4N More Info
Lead - Pb 5N More Info
Lithium - Li 2N8 More Info
Magnesium - Mg 5N More Info
Molybdenum - Mo 4N More Info
Nickel - Ni 4N More Info
Niobium - Nb 4N More Info
Palladium - Pd 5N More Info
Platinum - Pt 4N More Info
Rhenium - Re 4N More Info
Rhodium - Rh 4N More Info
Ruthenium - Ru 4N More Info
Silicon - Si 5N More Info
Silver - Ag 5N More Info
Tantalum - Ta 4N More Info
Tellurium - Te 6N More Info
Tin - Sn 6N More Info
Titanium* - Ti 4N More Info
Tungsten - W 5N More Info
Vanadium - V 4N More Info
Yttrium - Y 3N5 More Info
Zinc - Zn 6N More Info
Zirconium - Zr 4N ex Hf* More Info
The following alloys are available: Cu2Ce, CuAu, Cu3Au, Cu3Pd, Cu3Pt, Cu75Mn25, CuNi,CoAl, CoGa, FeAl, FeCr, Fe85Cr15, Fe64Ni36, Fe80Ni20, Nb90W10, NiAl ,Ni3Al, Ni3Al (+Fe), NiFe, Pd97Ni3, Pt7Ni, Pt75Ni25, Pt48Ni52, Pt3Cu, PtCo3, Pt3Cr, Pt10Pd90, PtPd, Pt90Pd10, PtRh, Pt80Rh20, Pt90Rh10,Pt95Rh5, TbCu2, V3Si, W99Re1, HfC, TaC, ZrC, NbC, MoC, TiC, VC, Ag10Zn, Bi2Te3, Co50Ga50, Cu91Al9, Cu75Pd25, Cu75Pt25, Cu70Zn30, Fe98Al2, Fe85Al15, Fe53Al47, Fe85Cr15, Fe86Cr14, Fe82,5Cr17,5, Fe80Cr20, Fe77,5Cr22,5, Fe75Cr25, FeCr16Ni10Mn2Mo2, FeCr17Ni12Mo3, Fe96Ni4, LaB6, NbSi2, NiAl, Ni3Al, Ni85Cr15, Ni80Fe20, Ni70Fe30, Ni3Pt, Pd70Au30, Pd3Au, Pd1Ag, Pd3Zr, Pt3Co, Pt3Ni, PtPd, Pt3Ti, Pt50Rh50, SmCo5, Si50Mn50, Ti50Al50, TiC, VO, W2Re, W4Re, ZrC. Any other compositions available upon request. Please send us details in order to receive quote.

Orientation and Polishing

The standard orientations offered for the above crystals are for the cubic system (001), (110) and (111) for hexagonal crystals (0001), (10-10) und (11-20). Other orientations such as (117), (221) or (112) may also be produced, of course. The standard accuracy of the orientation of cut crystals is within < 2°. By surface polishing an accuracy of < 0,1° is achievable. Polishing of the different crystals is performed very gently and where possible done chemomechanically. A surface roughness of better than < 0,03µm is obtained. Based on such a polish an atomically smooth surface may be prepared with a few sputter- and heating cycles or by flame annealing. (Recipes for the surface preparation in UHV are available on request). Given an orientation accuracy of < 0,1° terrace widths of several thousand Angstrom are achieved.  

Crystal GeometryCrystal Geometry

Metallic single crystals are usually pulled in form of rods. Depending on the metal the rod diameter can be set to values between several millimeters to 100 mm. These rods can be supplied either as raw crystals without further shaping or cut to discs. A standard disc thickness is 1mm. Thicker or thinner discs are supplied on request. The crystal geometry is shaped according to specifications of the customer by spark erosion. Special geometries, grooves, holes and reference faces (for instance, to indicate a second orientation) are possible without problems. Below a few common examples are listed. For crystal offers or orders just fill in your desired measures and send us these drawings. - If your design is not included, please fax us your drawing or hand sketch.

Click Here for a List of Available Geometries

"Hat form" with indication of second orientation:

Circular groove, reference face to mark a second orientation and hole for a thermocouple:

Holes for keeping crystal in place: